(20) The phrase to own ‘brother’, aha in the BT, have additionally started augmented, even though this means is also utilized in Turoyo. Hertevin possess one another ?aha and you may ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
As well, exterior NENA, i have other conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) One to instead strange item that is attested in all NENA dialects but Sanandaj Religious (hence most likely only a go pit on the facts) was aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends that this keyword comes on the root ql ‘to become crooked’. Most of the languages utilize the function aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and you can Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Several other keyword talked about because of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) try baxta ‘woman’, which has supplanted the new Syriac atta in most NENA, yet not into the Turoyo or Mandaic. It term appears to result of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s interesting to xmatch nÃ¡vÅ¡tÄ›vnÃkÅ¯ remember you to definitely an uneven plural endures in the numerous dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you will Halabja inse.
(23) An urgent development pointed out because of the Noldeke (1868, 59) try rxata, add up to Syriac rhat. The alteration off h so you can x within this one word was included in all NENA languages where in fact the verb try attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Other unanticipated creativity is the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the brand new variations zda?good, zdaya, and you can zdala throughout the some dialects. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) provide a prospective derivation on Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Models towards infixed d are found in all the fresh NENA languages where in actuality the root is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Only a few of the identifying features of NENA are located in both Turoyo or Mandaic
In my opinion that the above will make it clear that NENA languages share numerous special attributes that are receive none in the earlier attested types of Aramaic neither regarding other life languages. These characteristics variety along the domains regarding phonology, morphology, as well as the lexicon.
Especially, every languages from NENA agree for the requirements dos, 9, 14, fifteen, 16, 21, and 22. Every dialects in which you will find suggestions including acknowledge conditions 20, 23, and you will twenty four.
Just about Halabja agree in the conditions 8 and you can 11. Standards 6 is situated in the languages except Halabja, Hertevin, and you will Sanandaj Religious.
Despite their internal divisions, the new NENA dialects means a stunningly defined class, split obviously regarding each other Turoyo and you can Mandaic. The career of these languages away from NENA pale is beyond question.
The amount to which has try common across NENA is very unbelievable once we look at the immense differences when considering different dialects. The latest dictate off other languages to your NENA might have been one another deep and you can wide, plus the amount of shared intelligibility anywhere between languages could be extremely short. Many mutual innovations argue firmly to own a familiar supply of the newest NENA dialects, in a choice of just one dialect or even in a small grouping of closely associated languages. Meanwhile, we can detect a number of important packages regarding isoglosses hence show the latest boundaries away from dialect communities.
a) The fresh dialect of Halabja cannot share certain crucial designs and therefore are located due to all of the rest of the dialects. It doesn’t means an excellent CCiC-le preterite from intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), possesses zero third person just one copula with step 1 (11). This will be one particular basic department ranging from dialects out-of NENA. It means that the kept dialects setting a team whereby innovations bequeath whenever you are Halabja stayed unchanged because of the him or her.